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  • 認識小號



    小號俗稱小喇叭,音域廣、攜帶方便、入門門檻低、維修消耗費用少...是銅管樂器最具代表性的一份子,也是早期有些作曲家使用的樂器之一。許多人到我們工廠來參觀還常以為我們也是做薩克斯風的工廠。其實薩克斯風、黑管(豎笛)、長笛...等歸屬於木管樂器。
    薩克斯風近幾十年來由於媒體競相的介紹報導,加上台中后里地方的大力推廣,已經蔚為人人學習組團表演的風潮。不過相對的銅管樂器反而漸漸地乏人問津,只有在學校或軍隊的樂隊和台上表演的樂團才看得到。因此,卡羅爾銅管樂器觀光工廠將以此為推廣目標,希望人人簡單易學推廣到城鄉每個角落,讓台灣成為音樂文化大國。
     

    About Trumpet

    Trumpet, the highest register member of brass family, consists of several essential parts like mouthpipe, valves, tuning slides and bell. Trumpet is one of the most flexible musical instruments and can be easily found in different themes of music such as classic, jazz, each orchestra, wind ensemble, brass band and pop music.
     

    1400:法老的貢禮清單中,記載著40支鑲有寶石的金製喇叭。
    1400 B.C.:40 pcs of trumpet were listed on the tribute list for Tutankhamun. Jewelry were mounted on these trumpets.


    1352:古埃及法老王陵墓中,發掘到一個銀製喇叭。
    1352 B.C.:A silver trumpet was discovered in Tutankhamun’s grave.


    1000:而在丹麥煤田中,挖掘到一個銅製喇叭。

    1000 B.C.:A trumpet was discovered in a coalfield in Denmark.


    2世紀:埃及出現最原始型小號,其燦爛的音色,通常都與華麗壯觀的儀式典禮、皇室貴族結合在一起。

    200 A.D.:Trumpets were used for ceremony held by royalty.


    9世紀:已開始使用金屬製小號,其象徵勝利、凱旋、威武、莊嚴。所以,受貴族階級所喜愛;甚至於每一位貴族,都有代表其身分不同的喇叭訊號曲。

    900 A.D.:Trumpets were used to play signals for aristocrats. Each aristocrat has owned signals in order to distinguish with others.


    14世紀:發展自然小號的型態,一個平面圓柱型的口沒有任何邊洞、變音管、伸縮管和活門。所謂「自然」是因為管身沒有活塞或音孔改變音高,完全靠吹奏者的嘴型變化吹出不同的聲音。由於早期有這種限制,多半只用於軍隊或慶典中。

    1400 A.D.:Trumpet, was mainly used in military and ceremony for making signals and simple music.


    17世紀:開始使用在古典音樂方面。

    1600 ~ 1699 A.D:Trumpet appeared in few pieces of classic music.


    1638:方替尼(fantini)小號學習與演奏法。

    1638 A.D.:Girolamo Fantini’s Trumpet Method was developed.


    17世紀末:常用在歌劇、清唱劇,當作軍隊的背景音樂或勝利的歡呼。為了演奏高音域,全音階形式的泛音開始發展。

    1690 ~ 1699A.D.:Trumpet was used for dramas and military signal and simple music. Players tried to reach different harmonics.


    18世紀:自然小號的最高峰。產生許多克服小號音域限制的辦法,如:巴哈時代變音管-增加管的長度,也就是在吹嘴與管身之間加入「變音管」,增加管長以降低音高。

    1700 ~ 1799 A.D.:Tuning slides were developed. People use tuning slides to adjust the total length of trumpet, then reach different harmonic series.


    18世紀末:重大改革-出現邊洞和伸縮器(伸縮器常用於長號上,根據資料,伸縮器是為延長吹口的一部份,可以拉起,使所有的自然音階空隙填滿)。

    1790-1799 A.D.:People started use holes and tunable pipe to reach different harmonic series.


    1801:小號手懷丁格(Anton Weidinger)發明有鍵小號,但後來放棄,因會產生不清晰的聲音。

    1801 A.D.:Anton Weidinger developed the first 5-keyed trumpet, but found it difficult to make clear sound.


    1814:海德(John Hyde)改善U型上圈成為活動的伸縮器,利用彈簧使它回到正確的位置。

    1814 A.D.:John Hyde made the new keyed trumpet by applying new design on it.


    1827:德國出現活塞小號(取代19世紀的小號)。音色明亮富變化,可以吹奏快速且富旋律性的樂句,音程準確,高音域聽起來不費力。建立小號在管絃樂中的地位。

    1827 A.D.:Perinet trumpet (piston valves) appeared in Germany. Piston valves makes trumpet easier to play different harmonic series and keep in tune, trumpet became significant within orchestras and wind ensembles.


    20世紀:在爵士樂中,路易斯阿姆斯壯(Louis Armstrong)開創了許多的演奏技術。

    1900 - 1999A.D.:Jazz music becomes popular around the world. Louis Armstrong is probably the most important jazz player in 20th Century.

  • 認識短號



    短號是一種降B調樂器,與小號同音高。短號的喇叭管比小號粗而短,聲音略比小號寬而柔和、音色明亮飽滿且音域寬廣。演奏技巧,短號與小號雷同。其特色因為短號的形狀較小號短,重心較近身體,所以適合小朋友學習。


    About Cornet

    Cornet is quite similar to trumpet, but the sound of cornet is a bit wider and warmer. Cornet’s size is more compact than trumpet, so it is said that cornet is better entry instruments for young age players. Cornet is the most important instruments within British brass bands.

     

    1820:法國一名樂器製造商在德國的驛車號上添加活塞機制,也就是短號的創始。
    1820 A.D.:A French craftsman installed pistons system on post horn. This could be the one of the earliest cornets.


    1828:首度被運用於巴黎的管弦樂團。
    1820 A.D.:The first time cornet appears in orchestra in Paris.


    1834:製造商在短號上加裝「鐘錘鍵」,使其能吹出顫音。

    1834 A.D.:Cornet is modified to be able to play “trill”.


    19世紀末:許多管弦樂曲的小號聲部都用短號代替。

    1890-1899A.D0:Cornet appears frequently in orchestras, even more frequent than trumpet.ies.

  • 認識長號



    長號又叫做「伸縮號」,就像它的名稱一樣,樂器它看起來長長的。而伸縮號的名稱由來是因演奏的時候,需要把它的滑管拉長或縮短,所以叫做伸縮號。在歐洲國家,因為它圓潤的音色,所以常見用於宗教音樂裡。尤其在貝多芬的名曲《第5號交響曲》中運用長號之後,它已成為管弦樂團中的主要樂器。

     

    About Trombone

    Trombone is a brass family member that players use its telescoping slide (called hand slide) to change to total length and then reach different harmonic series. By adjusting player’s lips and hand slide, players are able to play each note. Trombone sounds mellow, so it is often seen in religious and orchestral music.


    遠古時期:猶大、埃及、希臘等地方就以大型的小喇叭演奏,但管子是直的,與現在彎曲的不同。
    ~B.C.:Trombone was determined a large size of trumpet (bugle) and made from a long, straight unbent tube.


    西元100:被當成小喇叭的低音部樂器。
    100 A.D.:Trombone worked as the bass part of trumpet.


    西元700:發展成S字型彎曲管,並且發明了伸縮的機能,能夠自由自在的奏出半音階。

    700 A.D.:Telescoping slide and bent tube systems were developed, players can reach each note.


    西元1520年左右:德國紐倫堡的演奏家設計出現在所使用的伸縮喇叭型體。

    1520 A.D.:Modern trombone was basically developed by a trombonist in Germany.


    十六世紀-十七世紀:作為伴奏用管樂器。

    1500 ~ 1699 A.D.:Trombone was mainly for accompaniment.


    十九世紀後:發明加入活塞。

    1900 ~ 1999 A.D.:Valve trombone was developed.

  • 認識軍號



    軍號是構造最單純的銅管樂器之一。英文名
    Bugle來自拉丁文的buculus,意指「牛角」。從字面上推測,軍號所使用的材料,早期來自動物頭上的角。

    吹奏就像其他銅管樂器一樣,由吹奏者送氣,通過嘴唇振動發聲,藉由樂器主體產生共鳴、擴大音量。

    軍號較少人提起,但有一種名為「富魯格號」(Flugelhorn)的銅管樂器常被提論,而它可視為軍號的延伸。富魯格號和一般小號相同,都有三個按鍵,但是它的音色較柔軟、寬闊,音域上接近法國號,但是音色又比法國號直接,他們大多擔任獨奏的角色 。
     

    About bugle

    Bugle (Latin: Buculus) is probably the simplest brass instrument that is similar to ancient trumpets and trombones. Players adjust lips to reach different harmonics and then make a signal or simple music. Thus, bugle is mainly seen in military and some particular occasions. It is said that flugelhorn is bugle’s closed family, both instrument makes mellow, dark and broad sound.


     

    十五世紀:歐洲的巡邏人員或軍人,漸漸開始使用類似圓圈狀的號角
    1400 ~ 1499A.D.:Bugle, made from animal’s horn, was used for making signal within military.


    十八世紀:人們逐漸使用銅、鐵等金屬材質取代牛角,外型逐漸演變成半圓狀,繫上皮革製的繩索讓使用者綁在腰部,方便騎馬或行軍時攜帶。
    1700 ~ 1799A.D.:People started using metal materials to make bugle instead of the material from animal.


    十九世紀:軍號的外型再度改變,成為今日常見的橢圓狀,英國輕步兵的代表徽章就是軍號的造型。

    1900 ~ 1999A.D.:Modern bugle was developed.

  • 銅管樂器吹嘴



    多數銅管樂器都配合可拆卸式的吹嘴,吹嘴的形狀或尺寸各有不同,並依據吹奏者的運唇方式而有不同的音色變化。


    Mouthpieces of Brass Instrument:
    Mouthpiece, or called tubular resonator, is a part of brass instrument that places on player’s lips and leads the vibration to instrument body. play an important role within brass instruments. There are numbers of different sizes of mouthpieces which vary the tone of brass instruments, player choose mouthpiece size based on personal preference.
     

    常見的吹嘴有以下兩種類型:
    -
    杯狀吹嘴
    杯狀吹嘴為大多數銅管樂器所使用的類型,越低音的樂器所使用之尺寸相對越大,所吹奏出來的音色較為暗沉。

    -錐狀吹嘴
    錐狀吹嘴為法國號及中音號所使用的類型。但在進行室外演出時,行進圓號通常擔任法國號的角色,所以也會使用錐狀吹嘴。

     

    2 types of mouthpieces:

    Semi-spherical
    This is been used for many brass instruments, such as trumpet, cornet and trombone, etc..

    Conical
    It is mainly used for French horn and marching French horn.

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